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CCPA is here. Are you compliant?

CCPA is here. Are you compliant?

As of January 1, 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) came into effect and has already altered the ways companies can make use of user data. 

Before the CCPA implementation, Big Data companies had the opportunity to harvest user data and use it for data science, analytics, AI, and ML projects. Through this process, consumer data was monetized without protection for privacy. With the official introduction of the CCPA, companies now have no choice but to oblige or pay the price. Therefore begging the question; Is your company compliant?

CCPA Is Proving That Privacy is not a Commodity- It’s a Right

This legislation enforces that consumers are safe from companies selling their data for secondary purposes. Without explicit permission to use data, companies are unable to utilize said data.

User data is highly valuable for companies’ analytics or monetization initiatives. Thus, risking user opt-outs can be detrimental to a company’s progressing success. By de-identifying consumer data, companies can follow CCPA guidelines while maintaining high data quality. 

The CCPA does not come without a highly standardized ruleset for companies to satisfy de-identification. The law comes complete with specific definitions and detailed explanations of how to achieve its ideals. Despite these guidelines in place, and the legislation only just being put into effect, studies have found that only 8% of US businesses are CCPA compliant.  

For companies that are not CCPA compliant as of yet, the time to act is now. By thoroughly understanding the regulations put out by the CCPA, companies can protect their users while still benefiting from their data. 

To do so, companies must understand the significance of maintaining analytical value and the importance of adequately de-identified data. By not complying with CCPA, an organization is vulnerable to fines up to $7500 per incident, per violation, as well as individual consumer damages up to $750 per occurrence.

For perspective, after coming into effect in 2019, GDPR released that its fines impacted companies at an average of 4% of their annual revenue.

To ensure a CCPA fine is not coming your way, assess your current data privacy protection efforts to ensure that consumers:

  • are asked for direct consent to use their data
  • can opt-out or remove their data for analytical purposes
  • data is not re-identifiable

In essence, CCPA is not impeding a company’s ability to use, analyze, or monetize data. CCPA is enforcing that data is de-identified or aggregated, and done so to the standards that its legislation requires.

Our research found that 60% of datasets believed, by companies, to be de-identified, had a high re-identification risk. There are three methods to reduce the possibility of re-identification: 

  • Use state-of-the-art de-identification methods
  • Assess for the likelihood of re-identification
  • Implement controls, so data required for secondary purposes is CCPA compliant

Read more about these effective privacy automation methods in our blog, The business Incentives to Automate Privacy Compliance under CCPA.

Manual Methods of De-Identification Are Tools of The Past

A standard of compliance within CCPA legislation involves identifying which methods of de-identification leaves consumer data susceptible to re-identification. The manual way, which is extremely common, can leave room for re-identification. By doing so, companies are making themselves vulnerable to CCPA.

Protecting data to a company’s best abilities is achievable through techniques such as k-anonymity and differential privacy. However, applying manual methods is impractical for meeting the 30-day gracing period CCPA provides or in achieving high-quality data protection.

Understanding CCPA ensures that data is adequately de-identification and has removed risk, all while meeting all legal specifications.

Achieving CCPA regulations means ditching first-generation approaches to de-identification, and adopting privacy automation defers the possibility of re-identification. Using privacy automation as a method to protect and utilize consumer’s data is necessary for successfully maneuvering the new CCPA era. 

The solution of privacy automation ensures not only that user data is correctly de-identified, but that it maintains a high data quality. 

CryptoNumerics as the Privacy Automation Solution

Despite CCPA’s strict guidelines, the benefits of using analytics for data science and monetization are incredibly high. Therefore, reducing efforts to utilize data is a disservice to a company’s success.

Complying with CCPA legislation means determining which methods of de-identification leave consumer data susceptible to re-identification. Manual approach methods of de-identification including masking, or tokenization, leave room for improper anonymization. 

Here, Privacy Automation becomes necessary for an organization’s analytical tactics. 

Privacy automation abides CCPA while benefiting tools of data science and analytics. If a user’s data is de-identified to CCPA’s standards, conducting data analysis remains possible. 

Privacy automation revolves around assessment, quantification, and assurance of data. Simultaneously, a privacy automation tool measures the risk of re-identification, applying data privacy protection techniques, and providing audit reports. 

A study by PossibleNow indicated that 45% of companies are in the process of preparing, but had not expected to be compliant by the CCPA’s implementation date. Putting together a privacy automation tool to better process data and prepare for the new legislation is critical in a companies success with the CCPA. Privacy automation products such as CN-Protect allow companies to succeed in data protection while benefiting from the data’s analytics. (Learn more about CN-Protect)

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The top 4 privacy solutions destroy data value and fail to meet regulatory standards.

The top 4 privacy solutions destroy data value and fail to meet regulatory standards.

Businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on data to make decisions and learn about the market. Yet, due to an increase in regulations, the information they have collected is becoming less and less useful. While people have been quick to blame privacy laws, in reality, the biggest impediment to analytics and data science are insufficient data privacy solutions.

From our market research, the top four things people are doing are (1) access controls, (2) masking, (3) encryption, and (4) tokenization. While these solutions are a step in the right direction, they wipe the data of its value and leave businesses open to regulatory penalties and reputational damage.

Your data privacy solutions are insufficient

Access controls: Access controls limit who can access data. While important, they are just not an effective privacy-preserving strategy because the controls do not protect the identity of the individuals or prevent their data from being used for purposes they have not consented to. It is a an all-or-nothing approach, whereby someone has access to the data, and privacy is not protected, or not, in which case, no insights can be gleaned at all.

Masking: This is a process by which sensitive information is replaced with synthetic data. In doing so, the analytical value is wiped. While this solution works for testing, it is not an advantageous solution if you are planning to provide the data to data scientists. After all, you are sending them this data to unlock valuable insights!

Encryption: Encryption is a security mechanism that protects data until it is used. At which point, the data is decrypted, exposing the private data to the user. Additionally, the concern with encryption, is that if someone accesses the key, they can reverse the entire process (decryption), putting the data at risk.

Tokenization: Tokenization, also known as pseudonymization, is the process of encoding direct identifiers, like email addresses, into another value (token) and keeping the original mapping of token stored somewhere for relinking in the future. When businesses employ this technique, they leave the indirect identifiers (quasi-identifiers) as they are. Yet, combinations of quasi-identifiers are a proven method to re-identify individuals in a dataset. 

Such a risk emphasizes the importance of understanding the re-identification risk of a dataset when comparing the effects of your organizations’ privacy protection actions. Moreover, this process is often reversed to perform analysis -violating the very principle of the process. The most important question to ask yourself is how do I know my datasets have been anonymized? If you only implement tokenization, the answer is you don’t.


Risk-aware anonymization will unlock the value of your data.

To unlock the value of your datasets in the regulatory era, businesses should implement privacy techniques. And many have! However, as we’ve discussed, the commonly used techniques are insufficient to preserve analytical value and protect your organization. The only way data will be useful to your data scientists is if you transform the data in such a way that the privacy elements enabling re-identification are removed while degrading the data as little as possible.

Consequently, businesses must prioritize risk-aware anonymization in order to optimize the reduction of re-identification risk and protect the value of data.

CN-Protect is the ideal solution to achieve your goals. It utilizes AI and advanced privacy protection methods, like differential privacy and k-anonymization, to assess, quantify and assure privacy and insights are produced in unison.

The process is as follows:

  1. Classify metadata: identify the direct, indirect, and sensitive data in an automated manner, to help businesses understand what kind of data they have.
  2. Quantify risk: calculate the risk of re-identification of individuals and provide a privacy risk score.
  3. Protect data: apply advanced privacy techniques, such as k-anonymization and differential privacy, to tables, text, images, video, and audio. This involves optimizing the tradeoff between privacy protection (removing elements that constitute privacy risk) and analytical value (retaining elements that constitute data fidelity) 
  4. Audit-ready reporting: keep track of what the dataset is, what kind of privacy-protecting transformations were applied, changes in the risk score (before and after privacy actions have been applied), who applied the transformation and at what time, and where the data went. This is the key piece to proving data has been defensibly anonymized to regulatory authorities.

In doing so, businesses are able to establish the privacy-protection of datasets to a standard that fulfills data protection regulations, protects you from privacy risk, and most importantly, preserves the value of the data. In essence, it will unlock data that was previously restricted, and help you achieve improved data-driven outcomes by protecting data in an optimized manner.

By measuring the risk of identification, applying privacy-protection techniques, and providing audit reports throughout the whole process, CN-Protect is the only data privacy solution that will comprehensively unlock the value of your data.

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Big data privacy regulations can only be met with privacy automation

Big data privacy regulations can only be met with privacy automation

GDPR demands that businesses obtain explicit consent from data subjects before collecting or using data. CCPA affords consumers the right to request that their data is deleted if they don’t like how a business is using it. PIPEDA requires consumers to provide meaningful consent before their information is collected, used, and disclosed. New privacy laws are coming to India (PDPB), Brazil (LGPD), and over 100 other countries. In the US alone, over 25 state privacy laws have been proposed, with a national one in the works. Big data privacy laws are expansive, restrictive, and they are emerging worldwide faster than you can say, “what about analytics?”.

Such has made it challenging for businesses to (1) keep up, (2) get compliant, and (3) continue performing analytics. Not only are these regulations inhibitive, but a failure to meet the standards will result in astronomical fines — like British Airway’s 204.6 M euros. As such, much distress and confusion has ensued in the big data community.


Businesses are struggling to adapt to the rapid increase in privacy regulations

Stakeholders cannot agree whose responsibility it is to ensure compliance, they are struggling with consent management, and they are under the interpretation that removing direct identifiers renders data anonymous.

Major misconceptions can cost businesses hundreds of millions. So let’s break them down.

  1. “Consent management is the only way to keep performing analytics.”

While consent is essential at the point of collection, the odds are that, down the road, businesses will want to repurpose data. Obtaining permission in these cases, due to the sheer volume of data repositories, is an unruly and unmanageable process. A better approach is to anonymize the data. Once this has occurred, data is no longer personal, and it goes from consumer information to business IP.

2. “I removed the direct identifiers, so my data is anonymized”

If this were the case, anonymization would be an easy process. Sadly, it is not so. In fact, it has been widely acknowledged that simply redacting directly identifying information, like names, is nowhere near sufficient. In almost all cases, this leaves most of the dataset re-identifiable.

3. “Synthetic data is the best way to manage emerging regulations.”

False! Synthetic data is a great alternative for testing, but when it comes to achieving insights, it is not the way to go. Since this process attempts to replicate trends, important outlier information can be missed. As a result, the data is unlikely to mirror real-world consumer information, compromising the decision-making process.

What’s evident from our conversations with data-driven organizations is that businesses need a better solution. Consent management is slowing them down, legacy approaches to anonymization are ineffective, and current workarounds skew insights or wipe data value.


Privacy automation: A better approach to big data privacy laws

The only manageable and effective solution to big data privacy regulations is privacy automation. This process measures the risk of re-identification, applies privacy-protection techniques, and provides audit reports throughout the anonymization process. It is embedded in an organization’s data pipeline, spreading the solution enterprise-wide and harmonizing the needs of stakeholders by optimizing for anonymization and preservation of data value.

This solution will simplify the compliance process by enabling privacy rules definition, risk assessments, application of privacy actions, and compliance reporting to happen within a single application. In turn, privacy automation allows companies to unlock data in a manner that protects and adds value to consumers.

Privacy automation is the best method for businesses to handle emerging laws and regain the mission-critical insights they have come to rely on. Through this approach, privacy unlocks insights.

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2019 was a game-changing year for data privacy

2019 was a game-changing year for data privacy

Amidst the rise of data science and analytics years ago, concern for privacy faded. This year, that sentiment has been eradicated. Data privacy and governance are of great significance, fuelled by an increase of regulations and consumer awareness.

2019: the year of privacy awareness

Last year, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was implemented. Today, more than 100 countries have developed data protection laws. This shift signals the quickly growing significance of privacy to the average person, and the relevance to business operations.

While regulations are increasingly being adapted and standardized, the rapid trajectory of stricter governance and requirements is unavoidable. Regulations are evolving and spreading across the globe with a vengeance. In particular, GDPR has showed some teeth, actioning €405,871,210 in fines. 

In turn, anonymization has jumped in popularity as a method for avoiding significant fines and regulatory penalties by taking data out of scope. But, organizations are benefiting from their privacy investments beyond compliance. 


Growing investment in privacy

In a survey by Cisco, 97% of companies who have made investment in privacy, have experienced at least one of the following benefits:

  1. Enabling agility and innovation from having appropriate data controls (42%)
  2. Gaining competitive advantage versus other organizations (41%)
  3. Achieving operational efficiency from having data organized and catalogues (41%)
  4. Mitigating losses from data breaches (39%)
  5. Reducing sales delays due to customer concerns (37%)
  6. Gaining appeal with investors (36%)

Consequently, this year we watched privacy protection transform from a burden to a competitive advantage that encouraged companies to maximize their investments and achieve a standard beyond that which is expected by regulations. However, most organizations still have a long way to go to achieve that.

While we expect privacy-preserving solutions to be increasingly implemented next year, 2019 was all about a shift in perception. Privacy is important! Privacy is important! Privacy is important!


Our ten favourite achievements of 2019

1. Microsoft announced they will honour CCPA-compliant protocols across their US operations.

Microsoft is making privacy moves, and we respect that. In November, they vowed to afford all US residents with the “core rights” outlined in the landmark state privacy law. This includes the Right to Know, Right of Access, Right to Portability, Right to Deletion, Right to be Informed, Right to Opt-Out, and Non-Discrimination Based on Exercise of Rights.

2. Apple rewrote their privacy page.

Apple’s privacy page explains how they’ve designed their devices with their consumers’ privacy in mind and set the standard for taking consumer privacy seriously. 

We covered this earlier. Read this post to learn more.

3. Twitter launched a privacy centre to centralize data protection.

Earlier this month, Twitter launched the Twitter Privacy Center, a resource aimed at centralizing the business’s data privacy efforts. We believe a centralized and easily approachable platform like this is the future of privacy communication.

4. GDPR is holding businesses accountable and setting precedent.

With €405,871,210 in fines announced, GDPR is doing a lot of work to bring businesses’ privacy procedures up to date. What’s more, it is spurring and inspiring similar legislation worldwide. Importantly, GDPR is sending the message that businesses cannot act without first considering their consumers.

We have written about the impact of non-compliance on businesses extensively. Check out this piece on Deutsche Wohnen SE.

5. Google launched their own open source differential privacy library

Google has come under scrutiny recently over their privacy practices, and rightly so. Between Project Nightingale, the acquisition of Fitbit, and their oversharing with the University of Chicago Medical Center, Google has made some very poor choices for consumers this year. However, one success that we commend is the new open source library that institutes differential privacy. Learn more here.

 6. The rise of second-party data, and rejection of third-party marketplaces.

Amongst the new wave of privacy regulations and demand for transparency, achieving the same level of understanding has become a challenge. It has also increased the risk of using third-party data because businesses cannot trust that the outside sources have met compliance regulations or provided accurate data. Consequently, more are turning to second-party data sources.

7. More than 25 state privacy laws were proposed to address consumer data rights in the United States.

Currently, 25 US states have data privacy laws that govern the collection, storage, and data usage of residents. This is a significant improvement, stimulated by GDPR, that is encouraging the development of a national privacy law.

8. Consumers called out businesses for not respecting their privacy.

It’s not only government pushing businesses to be more privacy-conscious; customers are also leading the way. For example, when Google acquired Fitbit, users tossed their devices. These actions are pushing the privacy movement forward and making a real impact on the nature of insights to date. Read more on this here.

9. Privacy has become a key message in the upcoming US presidential election.

Data privacy has become a major campaign issue in the upcoming election, signalling the importance of the topic to citizens. We love hearing this shift in rhetoric and are excited that candidates have been encouraged to speak to its importance.

10. CN-Protect was launched.

CryptoNumerics is on a mission to ensure privacy protection is not detrimental to businesses. We believe privacy and insights can exist in conjunction. That’s why we launched CN-Protect, a solution to optimize anonymization and data retainment. It is the ideal solution to get compliant while realizing the business benefits of a privacy focus.

2019 has been a game-changing year for data science and privacy, both for those who failed to meet compliance standards (hello, massive fines!), and those who reaped the economic benefit of their privacy investment. If 2018 was the year of regulations, 2019 is the year of privacy awareness. We expect 2020 will be consumed with privacy action.

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The top five things we learned about privacy in 2019

The top five things we learned about privacy in 2019

2019 has been a trailblazing year for data privacy, that left us with a few clear messages about the future. We’ve collected our top lessons to help inform your privacy governance strategy moving forward.

1. Privacy is a multi-dimensional position: legal, ethical, and economic

Since the implementation of GDPR in May 2018, people have been quick to consider privacy from a legal perspective – as something that must be mitigated to avoid lawsuits and regulatory fines. In doing so, they have all missed the other important factors to consider: the people and the data utility advantage.

When your business collects consumer information, it is important to remember that this is personal data. As such, there is an intrinsic duty and trust linked to the collection. There is an ethical responsibility to do right by your customers, determining that you will only use their data for reasons they are aware of and have consented to, and that you will not share the data with others. Responsible data management is fundamental to your relationship with customers, and it will have a significant advantage to your business to do so.

Economically speaking, positioning your business as a privacy leader is the best strategy, and not only from a brand perspective. If you anonymize personal information, your analysts will have increased access to a valuable resource that can help improve strategy and a product or service.

2. Privacy is not one-size-fits-all

Consumer data contains an inherent privacy risk, even after it has been de-identified. That is why a privacy risk score is essential to understanding the effects of privacy protection methods. Even if you mask the data, you don’t know how successful your process was until you assess the re-identifiable risk. That is why we believe a privacy risk score is so fundamental to the anonymization process.

However, we’ve learned that a score also enables businesses to customize their personal risk thresholds based on activities.

Such is important because businesses do not use all of their data to undertake the same activities, nor do they all manage the same level of sensitive information. As a consequence, privacy-preservation is not a uniform process. In general, we suggest following these guidelines when assessing your privacy risk score:

  • Greater than 33% implies that your data is identifiable.
  • 33% is an acceptable level if you are releasing to a highly trusted source.
  • 20% is the most commonly accepted level of privacy risk.
  • 11% is used for highly sensitive data.
  • 5% is used for releasing to an untrusted source.

3. Automation is central to protecting data assets

Old privacy solutions are no match for modern threats to data privacy. Legacy approaches, like masking, were never intended to ensure privacy. Rather, these were cybersecurity techniques evolved in a time when organizations did not rely on the insights derived from consumer data. 

Even worse, many businesses still rely on manual approaches to anonymize the data. With the volume and necessary precision, this is an impossible undertaking doomed for non-compliance.

What businesses require to effectively privacy protect their data today is privacy automation: a solution that combines AI and advanced privacy protection to assess, anonymize, and preserve datasets at scale.

4. Partnerships across your business teams are essential

Privacy cannot be the role of one individual. Across an organization, stakeholders operate in isolation, pursuing their own objectives with individualized processes and tools. This has led to fragmentation between legal, risk and compliance, IT security, data science, and business teams. In consequence, a mismatch between values has led to dysfunction between privacy protection and analytics priorities. 

In reality, privacy has an impact on all of these figures, and their values should not be pitted against each other. In today’s regulation era, one is reliant on the other. Teams must establish a unified goal to protect privacy in order to unlock data. 

The solution is to implement an enterprise-wide privacy control system that generates quantifiable assessments of the re-identification risk and information loss. This enables businesses to set predetermined risk thresholds and optimize their compliance strategies for minimal information loss. By allowing companies to measure the balance of risk and loss, privacy stakeholder silos can be broken, and a balance can be found that ensures data lakes are privacy-compliant and valuable.

5. Privacy is a competitive advantage

If you want to take cues from Apple, the most significant is that positioning privacy as central to your business is a competitive advantage. 

Businesses should address privacy as a component of their customer engagement strategy. Not only does compliance avoid regulatory penalties and reputational damage, but embedding privacy into your operations is also a method to gain trust, attention, and build a reputation for accountability. 

A Pew Research Center study investigated the way Americans feel about the state of privacy, and their concerns radiated from the findings. 

  • 60% believe it is not possible to go through daily life without companies and the government collecting their personal data.
  • 79% are concerned about the way companies are using their data.
  • 72% say they gain nothing or very little from company data collected about them.
  • 81% say that the risks of data collection by companies outweigh the benefits.

Evidently, people feel they have no control over their data and do not believe businesses have their best interests at heart. Break the mould by prioritizing privacy. There is room for your business to stand out, and people are waiting for you to do so.

Privacy had a resurgence this year that has reshaped law and consumer expectations. Businesses must make protecting sensitive information a business priority across their teams by investing in an automated de-identification solution that fits their needs. Doing so will improve the customer experience, unlock data, and serve as a differential advantage with target markets. 

Privacy is not only the future. Privacy is the present. Businesses must act today.

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A 2019 Review of GDPR Fines

A 2019 Review of GDPR Fines

As the year comes to a close, we must reflect on the most historic events in the world of privacy and data science, so that we can learn from the challenges, and improve moving forward.

In the past year, General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has had the most significant impact on data-driven businesses. The privacy law has transformed data analytics capacities and inspired a series of sweeping legislation worldwide: CCPA in the United States, LGPD in Brazil, and PDPB in India. Not only has this regulation moved the needle on privacy management and prioritization, but it has knocked major companies to the ground with harsh fines. 

Since its implementation in 2018, €405,871,210 in fines have been actioned against violators, signalling that the DPA supervisory authority has no mercy in its fervent search for the unethical and illegal actions of businesses. This is only the beginning, as the deeper we get into the data privacy law, the more strict regulatory authorities will become. With the next wave of laws hitting the world on January 1, 2020, businesses can expect to feel pressure from all locations, not just the European Union.


The two most breached GDPR requirements are Article 5 and Article 32.

These articles place importance on maintaining data for only as long as is necessary and seek to ensure that businesses implement advanced measures to secure data. They also signal the business value of anonymization and pseudonymization. After all, once data has been anonymized (de-identified), it is no longer considered personal, and GDPR no longer applies.

Article 5 affirms that data shall be “kept in a form which permits identification of data subjects for no longer than is necessary for the purposes for which the personal data are processed.”

Article 32 references the importance of “the pseudonymization and encryption of personal data.”

The frequency of a failure to comply with these articles signals the need for risk-aware anonymization to ensure compliance. Businesses urgently need to implement a data anonymization solution that optimizes privacy risk reduction and data value preservation. This will allow businesses to measure the risk of their datasets, apply advanced anonymization techniques, and minimize the analytical value lost throughout the process.

If this is implemented, data collection on EU citizens will remain possible in the GDPR era, and businesses can continue to obtain business insights without risking their reputation and revenue. However, these actions can now be done in a way that respects privacy.

Sadly, not everyone has gotten the message, as nearly 130 fines have been actioned so far.

The top five regulatory fines

GDPR carries a weighty fine:  4% of a business’s annual global turnover, or €20M, whichever is greater. A fine of this size could significantly derail a business, and if paired alongside brand and reputational damage, it is evident that GDPR penalties should encourage businesses to rethink the way they handle data

1. €204.6M: British Airways

Article 32: Insufficient technical and organizational measures to ensure information security

User traffic was directed to a fraudulent site because of improper security measures, compromising 500,000 customers’ personal data. 

 2. €110.3M: Marriott International

Article 32: Insufficient technical and organizational measures to ensure information security

The guest records of 339 million guests were exposed in a data breach due to insufficient due diligence and a lack of adequate security measures.

3. €50M: Google

Article 13, 14, 6, 5: Insufficient legal basis for data processing

Google was found to have breached articles 13, 14, 6, and 5 because it created user accounts during the configuration stage of Android phones without obtaining meaningful consent. They then processed this information without a legal basis while lacking transparency and providing insufficient information.

4. €18M: Austrian Post

Article 5, 6: Insufficient legal basis for data processing

Austrian Post created more than three million profiles on Austrians and resold their personal information to third-parties, like political parties. The data included home addresses, personal preferences, habits, and party-affinity.

5. €14.5M: Deutsche Wohnen SE

Article 5, 25: Non-compliance with general data processing principles

Deutsche Wohnen stored tenant data in an archive system that was not equipped to delete information that was no longer necessary. This made it possible to have unauthorized access to years-old sensitive information, like tax records and health insurance, for purposes beyond those described at the original point of collection.

Privacy laws like GDPR seek to restrict data controllers from gaining access to personally identifiable information without consent and prevent data from being handled in manners that a subject is unaware of. If these fines teach us anything, it is that investing in technical and organizational measures is a must today. Many of these fines could have been avoided had businesses implemented Privacy by Design. Privacy must be considered throughout the business cycle, from conception to consumer use. 

Businesses cannot risk violations for the sake of it. With a risk-aware privacy software, they can continue to analyze data while protecting privacy -with the guarantee of a privacy risk score.

Resolution idea for next year: Avoid ending up on this list in 2020 by adopting risk-aware anonymization.

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